My Top 10 Books for Instrumental Teachers

Over the past 18 years, I’ve acquired many books related to music education and instrumental teaching. If you’re looking to expand your library, explore some new ideas or collect together useful texts for your teaching diploma preparation, here are my top ten books. I’m not going to claim they’re ‘essential reading’ because each of our teaching contexts is different; however, they are, in my view, good starting points.

Clearly, there are many books available and this list is by no means exhaustive. Rather, these are the books I’ve found most useful over the years. They’re the ones I go back to time and time again. I have restricted this list to books which are not instrument-specific.

In no particular order…

1. The Music Teacher’s Handbook

This probably one of my favourite books as it covers a lot, but in bite-sized chunks. Each chapter and section is written by a different specialist, so it isn’t completely weighted towards one author’s view. The book is divided into eight sections:

  1. Preparing to teach;
  2. In the lesson;
  3. Supporting skills
  4. Motivation and practice;
  5. Ensembles and concerts;
  6. Your teaching career.

A whole range of issues are covered, from the basics of actually teaching, to aural, sight-reading, theory, improvisation, composition, pupils with additional needs, and exams. There are many opportunities for reflection with tasks and questions designed to encourage this. At the end of each chapter and section there are suggestions for further reading and exploration. This is an ideal book if you’re just starting out, but also if you’re looking for a mechanism by which you can reflect on your teaching skills.

The Music Teachers Handbook (2005) is published by Faber Music in conjunction with Trinity College, London (ISBN 0571523307)

2. Instrumental Teaching (Hallam)

This is actually the first book I owned as an instrumental teacher. This offers of a weightier introduction to the theory behind instrumental teaching. It’s a substantial book divided into three parts: understanding pupils; processes of learning; and the teaching environment.

This is often referred to as the instrumental teacher’s ‘bible’, and with good reason. It covers everything from the function of music in society, through to resolving problems with pupils’ parents. Every possible angle is covered with opportunities for reflection and further development. If the book above was the bones, Hallam really puts the flesh on those bones. In my view, this is a ‘must-read’ for anyone looking to develop their teaching and especially those looking to work towards teaching diplomas and other qualifications.

The only downside is that it has been long out of print which is a great shame. Although it is over 20 years old, in my view, no one has yet written another text with such depth. If you can obtain a copy second-hand, snap it up. Although most retail for £20+ it is a substantial 350-page book.

Instrumental Teaching (1998) by Susan Hallam is published by Heinemann (ISBN 0435811460)

3. Tuning In: Practical Psychology for Musicians (Mackworth-Young)

Anyone who has explored The Music Teacher’s Handbook mentioned above will be familiar with Lucinda’s excellent research and writing about the psychology of playing and teaching. The book draws on psychology in a way which aims to help musicians and teachers ‘deepen their awareness and understanding of music teaching, learning and performing, and enhance and enrich their skills’.

The book is billed as a ‘home study course’ and it is exactly that. This is a book you can work through at your own pace. It is highly accessible and written in a way which offers practical application of the principles in your teaching and playing. The book covers: emotion; motivation; practice; energy; making music; group teaching; working with parents; working with different age groups; and performance. At the end, Lucinda encourages you to conduct your own action research project within your own setting.

The book is also not easily available in print form; however, it is now available for Kindle download.

Tuning In (2000) by Lucinda Mackworth-Young is published by MMM Publications (ISBN 0953948501)

4. The Sounding Symbol (Odam)

A bit like the Hallam above, this is something a bit more ‘academic’ in nature. The book is subtitled ‘music education in action’. Odam considers a variety of topics, including: music as language; brain, body and music; aural skills; notation; composing; and listening.

Whilst this book isn’t aimed specifically at instrumental teachers, the penultimate chapter considers how all he’s discussed can be applied in this context. There is an easy-to-digest summary of each chapter as well as numerous case study examples of how these ideas might be applied in practice. This isn’t necessarily an ‘easy read’, but it is challenging, and as teachers, we should be prepared to reflect on our practice in this way.

Again, out of print, but available fairly cheaply second-hand.

The Sounding Symbol (1995) by George Odam is published by Stanley Thornes (ISBN 0748723234)

5. The Virtuoso Teacher (Harris)

I could, in theory have listed all Paul Harris’s books here. He has done an immeasurable amount for music education and instrumental teaching over the years, in a way which I don’t think has yet been fully recognised.

My reason for selecting this book is that it brings together much of Paul’s inspiration and advice under ‘one roof’. This book is designed for teachers to use as a mechanism for self-reflection and development. For example, it considers how we communicate with our pupils and the language we use. It encourages us to think about our own practice and how we might get the best out of our pupils. This is an essential read for all instrumental teachers.

The Virtuoso Teacher (2012) by Paul Harris is published by Faber Music (ISBN 057153676X)

6. Rhythm and Movement: Applications of Dalcroze Eurhythmics (Findlay)

I have always been interested in some of the alternative approaches to music education such as Dalcroze and Kodàly, although I’m aware, like many, applying the principles within a one-to-one context can be challenging, particularly with a wide range of age groups. At the heart of Dalcroze’s approach was the need for whole-body involvement and movement in learning music. A sound-before-symbol approach, Dalcroze developed an approach which taught musical concepts through movement before they were assigned a visual symbol.

This book gives a useful overview of the Dalcroze approach, but importantly, it covers a range of musical concepts such as tempo, dynamics, pitch, phrasing, form and rhythm. There are many suggested activities for each of these concepts and with a little adaptation, these can be applied in a one-to-one context. A useful appendix offers further suggestions for exercises, use of balls and action songs, although these would need greater adaptation. If you’ve not yet explored the Dalcroze approach, I think this is a really good starting point with many practical examples.

Rhythm and Movement (1971) by Elsa Findlay is published by Summy-Birchard Inc. (ISBN 087487078X)

7. Rhythm One on One: Dalcroze Activities in the Private Music Lesson (Black & Moore)

Following the same theme as the above, this book offers some practical examples of how the Dalcroze approach can be applied within a one-to-one teaching context. Whilst some of these activities may still need adaptation, there is much to admire in the practical suggestions offered in this book. It’s a useful companion to Findlay’s text above and shows how many of her exercises can be adapted.

Rhythm One on One (2004) by Julia Schnebly-Black and Stephen Moore is published by Alfred (ISBN 0739035444)

8. Teaching Beginners (Harris)

One of the most popular topics people write about for teaching diplomas is teaching beginners. Sometimes, it’s a specific essay on that subject, and sometimes the essay has to first consider how we approach teaching beginners before looking beyond the early stages.

Again, Paul Harris has written many excellent books, but for me, this one stands out. Teaching beginners carries responsibility as we, as teachers, may be a pupil’s first connection to learning music. As I’m sure many teachers would agree, teaching beginners is not easy. In this book Paul considers the first lesson and the lessons beyond that. He also considers tutor books and their place within our teaching. He covers transfer students too, something which can often prove challenging. We will all, at some time or another, teach beginners, so in my view, this is a book which should be on your shelves.

Teaching Beginners (2008) by Paul Harris is published by Faber Music (ISBN 057153175X)

9. The Music Teacher’s Companion (Harris & Crozier)

I was a little hesitant about including this book as it is published by ABRSM and in some ways, is weighted towards an approach which sits nicely alongside their own exams. That said, I still there there is much of use in this book, particularly for teachers just starting out.

As well as covering many aspects of teaching, it also considers the role of exams, festivals and competitions. A whole range of areas are covered such as lesson planning, motivation, rhythm, composition, improvisation, practice, group teaching and professional development. There are some usual templates for lesson planning, reviewing, progress and reports.

The Music Teacher’s Companion (2001) by Paul Harris and Richard Crozier is published by ABRSM, (ISBN 186096219X)

10. The Practice Revolution (Johnston)

I’ve had so much fun from this book over the years and it’s one I go back to time and time again. As the title suggests, this is a book about practice, but most importantly, it’s about effective practice (and effective learning come to that). The book is crammed full of ideas and activities to ensure our students are practising effectively. There is a focus throughout on using the right ‘tools’ for the job.

Johnston covers a range of areas including: learning a new piece; making a piece reliable; memorisation; speeding pieces up; and preparing for performances. There’s so much in this book that even after 10+ years I feel I’ve only scratched the surface.

The Practice Revolution (2002) by Philip Johnston is published by PracticeSpot Press (ISBN 095819050X)

Do you have any favourite books? Share them in the comments below.


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My Top 10 Books for Instrumental Teachers

4 Things Pianists Can Do to Improve Their Sight-Reading

If you’re a singer, you might be used to singing in choirs. Maybe you’ve been in shows, perhaps in the chorus where there’s been plenty of ensemble singing. If you’re an instrumentalist, you might play in a band or orchestra. Maybe you play in chamber ensembles, quartets or trios.

Being part of these groups, singing and playing with others means you’ll be sight-reading on a regular basis. You’ll also be used to keeping going. The choir won’t wait for you while you work out the interval in bar 9, and the orchestra won’t wait for you while you work out for the fingering for the trill in bar 11.

If you’re a pianist, then the situation is probably a little different. In general, many pianists don’t play regularly with others. Pianists are not used to playing in ensembles in the same way as the singers and instrumentalists mentioned above. By consequence, pianists are often not used to sight-reading and keeping up with an ensemble in the same way.

I’m certainly not suggesting that pianists are at a disadvantage when it comes to sight-reading, but maybe they have to work a bit harder and perhaps more creatively to hone those skills.

With that in mind, if you’re a pianist and you’d like to improve your sight-reading*, here are some things which I think can really help. Most of them are pretty fun too!

*My usual disclaimer that sight-reading is something we, as musicians, do all the time. Every time we start learning a new piece, we’re sight-reading. Sight-reading is for life, not just exams.

1. Play duets

In my view, playing duets is seriously underrated, not just as a skill, but as an enjoyable act of making music with others. I’ve blogged previously about the benefits of playing duets and also written an article for Piano Professional magazine on the subject.

Playing duets (also trios, music for two pianos etc.) can be a great way for pianists to experience some of the things which singers and instrumentalists encounter regularly in the ensembles they play with. Above all, you have to be able to keep going, particularly if you get to the point where you’re performing your duets in an exam, festival or other public arena.

If you’re a teacher, then I can highly recommend Paul Harris’ Improve Your Sight-Reading! Duets books. There are two available one for up to Grade 1 and one for Grades 2-3. Not only are the a great way to improve your sight-reading (particularly in conjunction with the other books in the series) but also improving it in the context of playing with someone else. This means both keeping up and keeping going.

2. Accompany

I have accompanied for a long time. Until you accompany on a regular basis, I don’t think many people fully appreciate the amount of skill that is required. Firstly, accompanists are often required to sight-read at short notice (often at no notice). This is something you have to get used to pretty quickly. I once accompanied an exam with only five minutes notice when the candidate’s accompanist didn’t turn up. In such situations, there is no time to learn, practise or seek to perfect the piece. You’ve just got to do your best: play it and keep going.

Secondly, as an accompanist, you realise pretty quickly that in order to make a success of it, keeping up with the soloist (or ensemble) trumps everything else. You also have to remain constantly alert to what they’re doing. You need to be prepared to skip a page when they turn two pages at once or shout out a bar number when they’re lost. All this means that you may play some wrong notes, you may be able to keep only one hand going or may need to improvise for a few bars, but you have to keep going.

If, as a pianist, you have to opportunity to do some accompanying, grab it. Start small though: you don’t have to rush off and accompany a concert soloist in public. Most singers and instrumentalists would be only too glad of someone else to play with.

3. Play with accompaniment tracks

Sometimes, as a pianist, it’s actually quite fun to play with other people, and playing with backing tracks is a good way to start. Backing tracks are much maligned, but they have their place. You can now get music in a whole range of styles and genres that you can play along too: everything from Disney favourites to the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto. If you don’t have a duet partner or a willing soloist to accompany, backing tracks can be a good alternative.

Playing along to backing tracks is, once again, useful because it requires you to keep going, to keep up with the music. It also means you have to listen to what else is going on, much as you would in a duet of if you were accompanying. One of the biggest problems with sight-reading is that people either play far too slowly in pursuit of note-accuracy or people simply stop and start and the piece has no sense of flow or continuity. I find that pianists in particular are quite bad for this, so anything you can do which gets you used to keeping going, is vital.

You may also find it useful to find some pieces which have sections set aside for improvisation. Scary as improvisation may be, it can be hugely useful to the sight-reader (especially as an accompanist)!

4. Record yourself

Recording yourself has two potential benefits here. Firstly, recording yourself adds a bit of pressure to your performance. Rather like an exam or performance, you have to deliver in that moment; there’s no going back.

Secondly, try recording yourself sight-reading. Then, go back and listen to your performance. What do you notice? For example, can you tap a steady pulse whilst you listen back to yourself? Does it feel like a continuous flowing piece, or does it stop and start?

Improving your ability to play at sight will take time. It requires consistent work and a critical ear. Above all, one of the most important things about sight-reading is the ability to keep going. There are many instances, as cited above where a steady pulse, rhythm and tempo, by necessity trump note accuracy.


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4 Things Pianists Can Do to Improve Their Sight-Reading

5 Questions to Ask Yourself When Writing Programme Notes

Writing notes for a concert programme may seem daunting. It is a professional skill, but also required for some music performance examinations and for local amateur concerts. In this guest post, Ruth Carlyle shares her suggestions based on experience of writing programme notes for performance examinations.

1. What is the purpose of the notes?

The purpose of the programme notes will vary by context.  At a functional level, they provide the audience with details about each piece, including the composer and date. More widely, the notes tell the story of the concert: why the pieces were selected, how they link together, or where there are contrasting styles. For examinations, there will be specific criteria that need to be met and should be checked before starting to work on the notes.

2. What do the notes contain?

Programme notes inform an audience about what it is they are to hear, but may also introduce particular ways of understanding. Details for each piece include: the composer and, where appropriate, lyricist; the date of composition; and whether it is part of a longer work. Where a song is performed in a language that is not native to most of the audience, a translation is needed. Whether or not a translation should be included has to be established early, as it will need to be accounted for in the word count and in the layout. The copyright on any translation will need to be checked, which adds to preparation time. The notes also cover key features of a work that the audience may listen out for in the performance and indications of the period and style.

3. What research is needed?

Knowing about the background to a work helps you to select the key points that may be of interest to an audience.  If you are unsure how to describe a piece, it is sometimes helpful to look at notes published with music recordings to see how other people have described the work. Do not copy other people’s words, however: legally, they will be subject to copyright; and practically, they tell a different story for someone else’s concert or recording.

With the research, consider what it is that you need to know.

Sources on the composer and lyricist:

  • Biographical dictionaries (usually free online access through your local public library);
  • Biographies (available on loan from your local public library or through inter-library loan that your local library can organise);
  • Music dictionaries and encyclopaedia.

Sources on musical styles and periods:

  • Music dictionaries and encyclopaedia;
  • Journals and books on music;
  • Background notes in edited music volumes;
  • Your own experience of performance and listening to music.

Sources on the words (where appropriate):

  • Text of the full work from which an extract is taken;
  • Literary biographies;
  • Introductions to anthologies or collected volumes by that writer.

4. Where do I start with writing the programme notes?

You are likely to have a limited word count, based on criteria for an examination or the style and production costs for the programme. Knowing that you have only a few words should not stop you from starting to write. Tell the story of the programme. The story could be why the pieces have been selected, such as for a particular anniversary or on a set of themes.

Once you have introduced the story, you can start to add in the details of each piece.  You might choose to describe each piece separately, or to weave them into the story. Describe the pieces in the same order as they appear in the concert, otherwise the audience may be confused.

When you have a full draft, you can go back to edit the text to meet the word count and ensure that it is a balanced account, giving appropriate weight across the concert items.

5. How will I know whether I have produced good programme notes?

At the draft stage, ask a friend or colleague to review your text. Did it make sense to them? Did it make them want to listen to the music? Did they learn anything new or unexpected from the programme notes? 

Good programme notes should add to the enjoyment of a performance. They are not an end in themselves, but should inform an audience about what is being performed and inspire them to listen and to form their own views on the music.


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5 Questions to Ask Yourself When Writing Programme Notes

5 Reasons Why It’s a Good Idea to Have a Studio Policy

When I had lessons as a child, no teacher I encountered seemed to have any formal policy when it came to the lessons they offered. It was predominantly pay by cash or cheque on the day of the lesson. I can’t remember any teacher with a formal cancellation policy or suchlike.

Fast forward several decades, and an increasing number of teachers now have formal studio policies and sets of terms and conditions. I’ve had many incarnations of these over the past 18 years, some more successful than others. This move towards more formal policies, is, in my view a good thing, and a reflection of the increasing professionalism of private teachers.

If you’re a private music teacher, you might wonder what the point of having a policy is. Indeed, teachers often tell me they’ve never had any problems and work on a goodwill basis.

The problem is that in my experience, and in the experience of many teachers I know, eventually, the goodwill runs out and the problems begin to appear. It’s at that point that the lack of any formal, written policy becomes a huge barrier.

Scroll down for a free downloadable checklist to help you plan or revise your studio policy.

So, why might it be a good idea to have a studio policy?

1. As a teacher you’re clear what you’re offering

I’ve written previously about the need to, as a teacher, set clear boundaries. How many lessons are you offering? How long are they? What are you charging for these? How are you charging them? When will payments be due? How will you collect payments? If you’re not clear about what you’re offering, your students (and more often than not, their parents) aren’t clear what they’re getting. In these situations it’s easy for misunderstandings to occur.

2. Your students are clear what they’re getting

This is really a natural follow-on from the point above. As your students will be paying you for your services, I think it’s only fair that there is some clarity around what they are entitled to for those lesson fees in return. Technically, if payments are not made, you could withhold those entitlements, but without being clear what these are to begin with, it can all too easily become a grey area.

3. It avoids awkward conversations

OK, it probably doesn’t avoid every awkward conversation, but it helps lay down some ground rules. Possibly the most important policy is for cancellations. Do you require notice, if so, how long? Can missed lessons be made up at a later date? What happens if you, as their teacher, has to cancel? If a query does arise, it’s useful to have these clear policies in place. If you don’t, then you run this risk not only of losing students, but also losing money too.

4. It protects your income

As teachers, we’re all in slightly different financial positions. I know many teachers for whom the money they earn from teaching is supplementary to another income, or to the income of a partner or spouse. That said, there are others of us, like me, for whom teaching makes up the bulk of our entire household income. I have bills to pay, and if my students choose not to pay me, I may end up in a position where I’m not able to meet my financial obligations. It it is easy for a domino effect to ensue. If you have no studio policy and someone doesn’t pay you, there isn’t an awful lot you can do to recover that money.

5. Everyone knows where they stand

Perhaps the final point is a culmination of all the above. By having a studio policy it is clear what your students can expect from you, and it’s clear what you can expect from them. When things go wrong, you have a written policy to refer to. It might not solve every problem you encounter, but it can help. But, be warned, if you have a policy, you must be prepared to enforce it. Of course, hopefully, you won’t need to, but don’t use your studio policy as an empty threat.

When it comes to writing your studio policy, there is no one-size-fits-all approach. You need to consider your own situation carefully when writing your policy. Although someone else’s may look great, it might not suit you.

Downloadable checklist

If you haven’t yet got a studio policy, or you’re looking to revise yours, I have collected together some useful articles and blog posts on Pinterest. Additionally, I have created a checklist of ideas to help you plan or revise your policy. You can download this for free here.


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5 Reasons Why It’s a Good Idea to Have a Studio Policy

4 Ways for Instrumental Teachers to Avoid ‘Resource Overwhelm’

I don’t know about anyone else, but one of my jobs over the summer is to make some attempt to sort and reorganise music, organise resources and generally tidy up my teaching studio. I’d say there are now an overwhelming number of teaching books, resources, websites and methods available, not to mention sheet music targeted specifically at the educational market. It can be completely overwhelming to know where to begin.

What’s clear is that none of us have either the time or the funds to explore or acquire everything that’s out there. It’s just not possible, and in some ways, why would we want to? In this blog post, I want to share some practical actions you can take to help avoid feeling totally and utterly overwhelmed by the resources available.

1. What’s your teaching philosophy?

  • What matters to you most in your teaching?
  • What is the knowledge and skills you’d like your students to develop?
  • Which things would you like your students to experience in their lessons?

These are important questions, yet many teachers feel unsure when it comes to their teaching philosophy. It’s easy to become enveloped in everyone else’s philosophies, and let’s be honest, it requires a certain amount of confidence to develop our own. With the teaching diploma candidates I mentor, this is something the think about a lot as it affects so many other areas.

‘Philosophy’ is a scary word, but start by thinking about what you want your students to get out of their lessons. You may find it helpful to reflect on your own learning – how might both the positive and negative teaching you experienced affect the way you teach now?

When it comes to choosing resources, having an idea of what’s important to you can help to sift the wheat from the chaff. If you believe that your students should be good sight-readers, you may choose a method book which develops note-reading in a pattern- or interval-based way. If you want you students to have good technical skills, you may choose a method book which develops technique from the very first lesson. If, like me, you’d like your students to develop the independent learning skills required to take ownership of their own learning, you may rightly be cautious to choose resources which do not rely too heavily on rote-learning.

Tip: think about what you want your students to get out of their lessons. What is your teaching philosophy? How do you think the resources you currently use facilitate that? Are there gaps to be filled or even resources to be retired?

2. Know your students.

As a teacher, you know your students pretty well. As time passes, you know what makes them ‘tick’, what interests them, and which skills they most want to develop. Inevitably, the books and resources you own, and those you seek to acquire will be in response to the needs of particular students.

There are many excellent resources out there, and hundreds I would recommend. I don’t own them all though. Fantastic as many are, they don’t suit my needs either as a teacher, or those of my students. Simply because I neither own nor use a resource, it is not necessarily a criticism of it. Rather, I have selected resources which best align with my teaching philosophy and with the needs of my own students.

Tip: if you’re looking to buy new books and resources, think about which of your students you will use them with. However wonderful the resource, if you’re struggling to decide which students you might use it with, maybe it’s not for you.

3. Set aside time to explore.

We are all busy, and time is inevitably limited. I suspect I’m not the only one who suddenly finds themselves hunting for a particular resource on the day of the lesson. It’s worth putting aside some time, maybe once a term, to evaluate the resources you already have and to see whether there are any gaps you might need to fill. Maybe you could get together with other teachers to share resources and ideas, either in person or online.

That said, you will never be able to own or use every book or resource which comes to the market, nor should you aspire too. Similarly, don’t discard books and resources because they are ‘old’. Some of the tried and tested approaches are still the most effective. When you evaluate your resources, think about whether those you use still meet the needs of you and your students. If they do, then that’s great, you shouldn’t feel obliged to replace them.

One word of caution though: if you’re using the same books and resources without considering alternatives, then I would encourage you to explore what else might be out there.

Tip: try and set aside time specifically to evaluate the resources you own, and to see whether, in consideration of your teaching philosophy and the needs of your students, whether there are any gaps to be filled. Also, consider whether you should be budgeting for new books and resources. Nicola Cantan has written a blog post here about budgeting in the teaching studio.

4. Do your research.

I’ve written previously about the need to do your own research and I feel quite strongly about this. When we become overwhelmed by the volume of resources out there, this often comes as a result of comparing ourselves to others. We see other teachers using things and we feel that we need to join them in order to keep up. It’s easy to feel that if we’re not using the latest method book or the latest app, we’re not keeping up.

What suits one teacher, and indeed, one student, won’t necessarily suit the next. There have been several instances over the past few years where certain resources have been pushed online as being the ‘must have’ in your teaching studio. They aren’t (or at least, they may not be). They’re just another resource in a long line of resources to hit the market. The temporary excitement will fade and the latest fad will pass. In 18 years as a private music teacher, I’ve seen this time and time again.

Once you’re clear about your teaching philosophy, you’ve considered the needs of your students and you’ve set aside time to explore, it’s time to roll up your sleeves and do your research. The internet has made this easier than ever. Not only can you explore books and resources online, but you can ask about and discuss them with other teachers. You can read online reviews, of which there are many (although, you should be cautious here, as not all online reviews are independent). Ultimately though, you need to make the decision. Just because everyone else seems to use a particular resource and even if it has glowing online endorsements, you can still walk away in favour of something else.

Tip: when choosing a new resource, consider, (a) how does it align with my teaching philosophy; (b) how does it meet the needs of my students; and (c) have I researched it independently. Not only will you build a library of books and resources which suit you and your students, but you will probably save money in the process.

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Pinterest graphic: 4 Ways for Instrumental Teachers to Avoid Resource Overwhelm

10 Things I’ve Learnt in 18 Years as a Private Music Teacher

I’ve recently celebrated 18 years as a private music teacher. In that time, there have been many ‘ups and downs’, and after 18 years, I’ve definitely learnt a few things and I’d like to share some of them with you here. If you’re just starting out as a private music teacher, I hope they might offer some reassurance and some food for thought.

1. You need to set boundaries (and stick to them).

When I started teaching in 2001, I taught whenever people wanted a lesson. I was completely at the beck and call of the students/parents themselves, seemingly available 24/7 whenever it suited them. It took a long time for me to realise that actually, they respected me far more for having clear boundaries. Admittedly, you’ll never please everyone, but boundaries do help. Everyone’s boundaries will be different, but here are a few of mine:

  • I have set days and times when I’m available to teach. I don’t accommodate teaching outside of those times;
  • I teach one-to-one for no more than 5.5 hours a day, and for no more than 2.5 hours without a 30-minute break in between blocks of lessons;
  • Breaks and mealtimes are built into my teaching timetable;
  • I don’t teach at the weekend.

2. Some people always pay late.

Dress it up however you like, but no matter how many policies you have, no matter how clearly you think they’re worded, there will always be one or two who think these don’t apply to them. There will always be the ones who pay late, even when the invoice clearly states when payment is due. There will always be one or two who attempt to find a loophole in your cancellation policy. I’ll be honest, these people are few and far between, but, they are incredibly frustrating. That said, by accepting that these people will always exist, it can be just that little bit less stressful when they do rear their heads.

3. Some students won’t practise.

I used to worry about students who didn’t practise. I used to worry a lot. The reality is that progress is inevitably linked to practice, so in some ways, these worries are justified. One thing I’ve come to accept over the past 18 years is that as a teacher, I do not have a monopoly on why students come for lessons. I know that for many of them, the experience and enjoyment of he lesson is the most important thing, and therefore, practice is not a priority. Yes, there are times when a lack of practice becomes problematic, but I don’t think that practising at home is the ultimate pre-requisite of having lessons. Let’s be honest, I don’t know about you, but I did very little practice when I was having lessons as a child!

4. You cannot specialise in everything.

I’ve already alluded to this above because this also comes down to setting boundaries. You cannot be everything to everyone, and that is a fact of life. I’ve written previously on this topic, but it’s OK, and in fact, I think should be encouraged, to be honest about where your skills and interests lie. Over the years, I’ve set some fairly clear boundaries in terms of what I do and don’t teach; for example:

  • I teach singing, but I only specialise in classical and music theatre;
  • I set a minimum age for the subjects/instruments I teach, and I stick to these.

There is a general myth that the self-employed and freelancers are always short of work, and therefore, should take on everything offered to them. Ultimately, this never works.

5. Don’t forget to nurture your own creativity.

This is hugely important, and it’s still something I struggle sometimes to balance. I think it’s easy when you’re teaching to become consumed by the work itself. I think this is especially true when many of us started teaching as a result of music being our hobby. But, if we want to nurture the creativity of others, then we have to nurture our own on music-making and enjoyment too. There have been times for me when the act of teaching has taken away the enjoyment of music itself. Striking a balance is so important. Never lose sight of the reason you learnt an instrument right in the beginning. I often talk about this as well as offering some inspiration in my monthly newsletter Creative Notes which you can sign up for here.

6. You’ll invest in resources you never use.

New books, methods and resources appear on the market at an alarming rate. I’ve blogged about this previously. The advent of the internet has only increased their availability. We’ve all been guilty, at one time or another, of jumping on a bandwagon, buying the latest ‘thing’ which inevitably we use once and which then sits on our shelves gathering dust. I think it’s worth taking a moment to accept we’ll all acquire books and resources in a moment of enthusiasm which ultimately, we won’t use in the longer-term.

7. Music isn’t everyone’s number one priority in life.

As teachers, music is inevitably a huge part of our lives. For many of us, it was a hobby before we made a job out of it. We are passionate about music, and it’s as much an escape as it is a business for us. The same however, does not apply to everyone else, including some of our students. I often come across teachers who are frustrated to the point of exhaustion because they cannot fathom why music isn’t their students’ number one priority. Sometimes, we have to take a step back. Just because music isn’t always our students’ number one priority, it doesn’t mean they are any the less enthusiastic, committed or interested. As I said above, we don’t have a monopoly on why they come for lessons and we should be happy to meet them where they’re at.

8. We are not creating clones of ourselves.

One of the things I love about my job is being able to inspire others in their own music making. That said, I think there’s a fine line here, and I’ve always been absolutely clear that my job isn’t to teach in a way which means my students simply copy what I do. I love being able to share my passion and enthusiasm for music with my students, but I’m also aware that I need to facilitate an environment which supports them to develop their own passions. I am always cautious of terms such as ‘passing on’ musical skills and knowledge. It’s true, passing these on is inevitably part of teaching, but it’s not the same as creating an environment in which students can construct their own knowledge and develop their own skills.

9. There will be times when you wonder why you’re teaching.

I know this might come as a shock to some people I know, but there have been plenty of times over the past 18 years where I’ve considered throwing in the towel and stopping teaching. I think it’s a fact of life that whatever we do, there’ll be times when we feel like that. I think this is often the time when we need to nurture our own enjoyment of music even more. Sometimes, it’s a good thing to go back to where it all started.

10. Cake.

Cake possesses a magical power to make so many things in life OK. It’s also a great way to bring people together and create a sense of community. I shouldn’t say this, but it can often be a good bribe too! Anyone who’s worked with me will know that cake, more often than not, baked by me, features prominently.

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10 Things I've Learnt in 18 Years as a Private Music Teacher

4 Ways to Make the Most of the Music Exam Mark Sheet

If you’re reading this, you’ve probably taken a music exam fairly recently. Congratulations! Whatever the outcome, I have a huge amount of admiration for any learner who puts themselves forward for any form of external assessment. To me, simply turning up to play or sing in front of someone else in an exam situation is an achievement in itself.

Students are rightly keen to know the numerical results of the exam they’ve taken, alongside which band (e.g. distinction, merit, pass etc.) the result fell into. But, there’s another piece of paper which comes with your certificate, the mark sheet, and this is something which, when used effectively, offers a lot which can help a learner on the next step of their musical journey.

Accepting that deciphering both examiners’ handwriting and language (special ‘examiner speak’) can be challenging, rather than being filed away behind the certificate, the mark sheet is well worth exploring further.

1. Celebrate!

Most exam candidates come out of the exam remembering all the things which went wrong: the words they forgot, the scale which had a false start and the incorrect answer in the aural tests. This is a natural response, and in some ways, it’s a necessary part of ‘moving on’ to go through that process of reflection.

When your mark sheet comes, there are usually a good number of positive comments and we should take time to celebrate those. Exam candidates are notoriously good at remembering all the things that didn’t go to plan, but it’s worth remembering that examiners see a much bigger picture. I know that following my own candidates’ exams this past term, many of the things they felt hadn’t gone well were, in fact, not even noted by the examiner.

Tip: make a list of all the positive comments. You may surprise yourself by how many there are. Celebrate them! If you like, stick your list up somewhere prominent where you can see it. There are many times on our musical journeys where we need a confidence boost, and these positive comments are something to return to. At the bottom of this blog, there’s a sheet to download to help you with this process of reflection.

2. Is the work you did before the exam reflected in the comments?

Before we enter for an exam, we’ll have almost always worked on specific things which we wanted to improve on. We might have worked on the tone quality of our scales, or the dynamic variation in our pieces. We might have worked on the tuning of our unaccompanied traditional song, or on the singing back the melody in the aural tests. Knowing what we’ve worked on in particular, it’s worth cross-referencing this against the mark sheet. Did the examiner pick up on any of these things? Is the work we put in reflected in the comments?

Tip: if you worked on something and it isn’t mentioned in the comments, don’t be disheartened. I take the fact that it wasn’t mentioned as a positive.

3. What can you learn from the comments?

I think the most important thing about the mark sheet is seeing how the examiners’ comments can help us take our learning forward. It’s easy to see the examiners’ comments as criticisms, but they can offer us some pointers for things we can work on next and seek to improve further.

Part of taking an exam is getting feedback on your performance. The examiners’ feedback can by hugely valuable as you start to learn new pieces, work on specific areas of technique, or seek to improve your skills further.

Tip: make a list of things that the examiner has identified which you’d like to improve and work on. See the comments in as constructive a light as possible. Use the examiners’ assessment to take your learning forward.

4. Reflect on the exam journey

Taking an exam can be a nerve-wracking and often stressful experience. We invest a huge amount of effort into preparing for exams, and we often underestimate the emotional input required. When you’ve got the result and the mark sheet, it can be a good time to reflect on the whole exam experience.

Think about the process you went through as you worked on your pieces, learnt your scales and sought to improve your sight-reading. Is there anything which you might have done differently? Not everyone who takes an exam goes on to take another one, but many do. That said, reflecting on the way we prepared for the exam can help us in areas of our lives beyond music.

Whatever your exam experience, remember that it’s a huge achievement to just put yourself through it. Remember, that as self-critical as we inevitably are, there’s much to celebrate about what we’ve achieved.


To help with your reflections, I have created a worksheet which you can download here. You are encouraged to adapt it to suit your own needs, but it offers a framework by which you can utilise the possibilities of the mark sheet and reflect on the overall exam experience.

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Do You Teach Students Who Have No Idea What They Want to Learn? Here’s How Spotify Can Help.

Very occasionally, I come across a student who has a really clear idea what it is they want to learn. They have lots of ideas for pieces they’d like to learn and often come armed to their lessons with lists or books of these.

These students are few and far between, and in reality, many students have no idea what it is they’d like to learn.

This can often present the teacher with a challenge. The art of teachers recommending pieces for their students to learn is important, and it’s part of the teaching and learning process. But, what happens if students are learning only pieces chosen by the teacher? I don’t know about you, but I feel uneasy about that. I want the learning experience to be one of sharing and collaboration, not one of the teacher imparting their chosen repertoire to their students.

That said, it’s not easy, but over the past year, I’ve developed an innovative way to help students take some ownership of their repertoire choices. If you have students who are equally undecided about what they’d like to learn, Spotify* could be your answer.

Let’s be clear that I’m suggesting this as part of a wider process, part of which is for the teacher to guide the student towards suitable repertoire pieces. But, Spotify can offer a collaborative means to widen this process where some of the decision-making is shared with the student.

It’s actually pretty simple to set up, and so far, has been quite effective.

All you need to do is to set up a Spotify playlist for the student. Even if you only have the free version of Spotify, this is still possible. Once you have created a playlist, you can then add to it pieces which that student has already learnt.

Here is the playlist for one of my singing students. She’s passed ABRSM Grade 5 and has been working towards her Grade 5 Theory. During that time, we have been expanding her repertoire to cover more music theatre:

Scroll down below the playlist, and you will find that Spotify starts to recommended additional songs based on that playlist:

It’s possible to make the playlist collaborative so students can explore the recommendations in their own time and add any songs they like the sound of to the playlist. The recommendations refresh as the playlist is updated, and it can also be manually refreshed by clicking on the button at the top-right.

As I say, this is not a replacement for the teacher, and you will need to manage this sensitively for each student. Some students might be happy to go away and explore the recommendations themselves, whilst others may feel more confident exploring them with the teacher in the lesson.

Whilst the example above is for singing, I have also used this successfully for some of the pianists and flautists whom I teach. It is an innovative way to get students involved in their repertoire choices, and it’s simple to get set up. It also gives students a list of the pieces they’ve learnt and a reference recording should they wish to use it.

So, if you’ve got students, like me, who have no or little idea what they want to learn, try this. You, and they may be surprised at its effectiveness.


*I use Spotify for this, but I’m aware there are other similar options available. This is not an advert for Spotify.

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Do you teach students who have no idea what they want to learn? Here's how Spotify can help.

Piano TRACKS in Practice

In this guest blog post, Barbara Kennedy, creator of the Piano TRACKS Project, shares three pupil case studies which demonstrate how the framework can be applied in practice. We hope this is useful not just for existing users of the Piano TRACKS materials, but also for those who’ve not yet explored this fantastic resource for piano teachers.

The piano TRACKS (pT) project provides piano teachers with a formal, but flexible way of assessing their students, along with tools to help support their development. In this blog post I will be focussing on how I, the creator of the project, use the pT checklists to maximise student attainment. 

Our checklists provide a way to identify progress as students develop at the piano. They are based on the pT curriculum which has been designed to break down learning into manageable chunks. The curriculum has eight progressive levels (Stages A – H), and for each stage there are two checklists, one for skills development and one for knowledge acquisition. This helps students to build on their theoretical and practical skills concurrently. These eight stages take students from the very beginnings of their piano journey through to intermediate level (approximately Grade 5 standard). 

There is no right or wrong way to use these checklists, and teachers are encouraged to use them within their preferred approach to teaching, in a way that best supports the learning styles of individual students. Students are likely to span several levels of the curriculum at once, as they develop different skills at different times. The project is designed as a framework that teachers are encouraged to adapt, adding or removing items of learning that they feel are necessary. 

In the next section of this blog I will present some examples [real names omitted] of how I have used the checklists, and the wider programme.

1. Seven-year-old: shows potential, but lacks motivation.

I expect I am not the only teacher with a young student who has plenty of potential, but finds it difficult to concentrate in lessons, rarely practises at home, and often forgets their books. I have been teaching this particular student, Katie, for two years, and progress has been somewhat slow, although the student enjoys lessons. I thought the checklists might be a good fit for Katie as a motivational tool. It can take a long time for students to reach the level where they are preparing for a graded exam, but with the pT checklists there are three pre-Grade 1 levels which can fill in that gap. There are also certificates free to download from our website that can be presented to students when they complete a stage. 

Piano TRACKS checklist for Stage A knowledge

When I first introduced the checklist book to Katie, she could see almost all of Stage A was completed. Together, we agreed that there were some terms relating to the stave that she could be more confident of, and I sent her off with a worksheet (from the pT range) to practice the names. The following week she was able to name all the elements required to complete Stage A, and proudly left the lesson with her certificate

Since then, Katie has been more confident about her abilities, and more focussed in lessons. As a teacher, I have been able to get a better idea of what she is capable of. I have been impressed by the things she will now do independently because she knows she can, and what she is willing to try. 

2. Transfer student: who, what, and where? 

It can often be difficult to ascertain what level a transfer student is truly working at. Often, the student isn’t clear themselves, even if they have previously taken exams. Robert, 11, recently came to my studio from another teacher. He was playing pieces from the first Up-Grade book, so I estimated him to be around, or approaching, Grade 1 level. For the first term of lessons, I used different activities, games, and repertoire to subtly ascertain Robert’s knowledge and practical capabilities. This was an interesting process as it highlighted that he was able to work at a higher level than we had previously realised. 

As a teacher, I also found that the checklists helped me to plan lessons in a structured way, to inform progress. It allows me to easily identify what areas a student needs to work on, giving me quick ideas of what to include in a lesson. For Robert the checklists provided a crucial turning point, as he had been held back by working on material that was too easy for him. Being able to methodically assess Robert in this way meant that I was quickly able to see his real level of ability. 

For planning and logistical purposes, I keep hold of students’ checklist books. Robert will sadly be leaving me at the end of the academic year due to the family relocating. At this point, I will give him his checklist book to keep and to pass on to his next teacher. I hope that the next teacher will be able to use it as a starting point for Robert’s future lessons. 

3. Adult beginner: enthusiasm and pacing. 

The final student I am going to talk about in this blog post, is an adult beginner who recently started having lessons with me. In my experience, adult learners are some of the most committed and ambitious learners. They often sprint through the beginning stages of learning and then reach a plateau which can leave them feeling discouraged. I think this can often lead to adults giving up lessons quickly, which is a real shame. 

Piano TRACKS curriculum

I introduced the checklist to my adult student, Jamie, within the first few lessons. Jamie is a dedicated learner and his enthusiasm for the piano shines through at every session. The checklists gave Jamie a truthful insight into how much there was to learn from the start of his piano journey. 

Jamie has found the checklists useful because he has been able to visualise his progress. During weeks where he has felt that his achievement has been less than usual, we have been able to look back at how much he has already grown as a musician, and it helps us to concentrate on the road ahead. 

With all my students, I have found that the checklists increase motivation in students in a meaningful way. They like to have specific, bite-sized, goals to work towards (alongside their ‘bigger picture’ aims). It saves me time when lesson planning and helps me to plan solid activities and select appropriate repertoire that truly aids all-round musical development

I think it is fair to say that assessment within the creative arts is a tricky business. Questions are often asked about the appropriateness of current systems in popular use, or whether we should use assessment at all. I believe that the right kind of assessment, at the right time has a positive effect on student progress. These checklists provide a flexible, tangible, and meaningful way of showing achievement. 

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Piano TRACKS in Practice

You can find out more about the Piano TRACKS Project here, and read more about Barbara on her website.

Why Take a Teaching Diploma?

For those teaching privately in the UK, there is no requirement to possess any kind of qualification; however, every year, thousands of teachers choose to work towards a teaching diploma in order to, amongst other things, achieve an accredited qualification. In addition, many instrumental teachers in schools and colleges choose to work towards a teaching diploma, even when they’re often also not required to do so.

So, why do teachers choose to work towards a teaching diploma? Why do teachers commit time and money to something which they essentially don’t need? Having talked to a number of instrumental teachers who are both working towards or have taken their teaching diplomas, I wanted to share some of their reasons.

If you’re thinking about taking a teaching diploma, maybe reading some of their reasons will inspire you and aid your decision-making process? Their reasons fell broadly into three categories:

  1. To improve teaching and be more confident teachers;
  2. To have a goal to work towards;
  3. To gain professional accreditation and validation.

Let us think further below about each of those categories:

1. To improve teaching and be more confident teachers

The primary reason teachers cited for choosing to work towards and take a teaching diploma was to improve their teaching, something which they saw as beneficial to both themselves and their pupils.

Some candidates said that working towards a teaching diploma allowed and encouraged them to explore new ideas, and to develop their existing knowledge and skills. Some felt that going through the process of working towards a teaching diploma would allow them to reflect on their teaching approach and philosophy, and by consequence would empower them to be better teachers as a result.

There was also a sense that some teachers were curious to see whether they could achieve a teaching diploma, and virtually everyone said the process had increased their confidence as teachers.

2. To have a goal to work towards

A number of teachers said that the teaching diploma had given them something to work towards. One said that whilst they could have gained new skills and increased their knowledge without the framework of a qualification, they felt that working towards the diploma gave them an end goal so that the study they undertook had purpose.

Connected to this was the sense that working towards a teaching diploma allowed you to bring together various ‘pots’ of different training courses, events, workshops and CPD opportunities. Whilst these things didn’t necessarily exempt you from elements of the diploma, they could be drawn upon as part of the preparation process. Whilst each ‘pot’ may not have, in itself, led to a qualification, the collective knowledge and skill gained could be counted towards their diploma.

3. To gain professional qualification and validation

Whist this was by no means the primary reason for most teachers, candidates recognised that working towards the diploma gave them an accredited and professional qualification. For some, that meant having post-nominal letters after their name. Others felt that having a qualification reinforced their credibility as a new teacher.

Other teachers had worked towards a diploma because they felt it increased their professional standing when it came to applying for teaching work in schools, often on a self-employed basis. It was recognised that in an unregulated marketplace, having a teaching qualification was often a means of standing out from the crowd.


I think what these experiences show is there are many different reasons why teachers choose to work towards a teaching diploma. Above all, I think they present a challenge. They allow teachers, often working in fairly isolated circumstances, to reflect on, evaluate and validate their teaching.

Whilst the end result is to have achieved the qualification, the process and journey of exploration and reflection is as, if not more important.


If you’re considering working towards a teaching diploma, I offer a popular and bespoke online mentoring programme. The programme offers one-to-one mentoring for the DipABRSM, DipLCM(TD), ALCM(TD) and ATCL diplomas. I seek to empower teachers to approach their diploma preparation with confidence, and to take them on a journey of reflection and validation of which they can be proud.